Computer Basic Information

3G and 4G

3G technology is very common today with regard to mobile phones and the Internet. It is an acronym that represents the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, replacing 2G. With this technology, voice transmission and data is enhanced, offering greater connection speeds, as well as other features, such as broadcast television signals, voice calls, three-dimensional games, and faster download of music and videos, etc.

4G technology is found in technologies that provide Internet connections with very high speeds. 4G mobile networks achieve speeds close to those of cable or DSL modem connections. 4G allows access to multimedia content, such as much faster HD videos, video-conferencing and music, etc. directly from the Internet.

at (@)

A name given to define recorded information. It allows you to record information, transforming them into a file that can be placed on any storage device, such as a hard drive.

Audio input and output

Used to connect speakers and microphones.

Basic Software

This is essential to run the computer. For example, the Microsoft Windows, Linux, iOS and Android operating systems. Later in this course, we will have an entire lesson dedicated operating systems.

Bit

This means binary digit, that is, the smallest unit of information that can be stored or transmitted.

Bluetooth

This is the name given to a piece of wireless technology with wireless communication, which allows the quick and safe transmission of data via mobile devices, notebooks, keyboards, mice and headphones. The range of the bluetooth is only a few meters.

Business Network

A larger LAN that can have multiple routers to connect to different networks.

Cable

An Internet connection through cable that does not use phone lines. A cable connection uses coaxial cable lines, originally developed for transporting television images via cable. A cable modem connects your computer to the ISP, and as a DSL network, cable offers high speeds and an ever-available service, which means that even when the connection is not in use, the Internet connection is still available.

Cable connection

The cable connection uses the same infrastructure of cable TV service, where both the TV service and the Internet data pass through the same connection at the same time. This is also a type of broadband connection.

Corporate router

A more sophisticated (and thus more expensive) piece of equipment dedicated to forwarding packets and finding the best path between networks (larger than domestic ones), located inside and outside the company.

Desktop or desktop computer

A device that has separate parts, such as chassis, monitor, keyboard and a mouse.

Device Manager

The Device Manager is a Control Panel item that verifies the installed hardware. This item enables the installation and updating of device drivers on the hardware.

Dial-up connection

Also known as dial-up connection. A type of Internet access whereby a person uses a modem and a standard telephone line.

Domain

The name registered by the company that offers the email service.

Dot matrix printer or impact printer

This works with tape, prints with carbon and makes noise when printing.

DSL

An always-on service which means there is no need to dial each time you need to connect to the Internet. It uses existing copper phone lines to provide digital communication of high speed data between end users and telephone companies. Voice signals and data are transmitted on different frequencies through copper telephone wires.

DVD (digital versatile disc)

A disk that is able to record data in digital format. Being newer than the CD, it also has much higher data storage capacity.

Electronic mail or email

Service through which people exchange messages over the Internet. This can be done through the Web (web mail) or by using a specific software called email clients.

Encrypting

This is a set of rules that put information into code so that only the sender and the receiver are able to understand it.

Ethernet cable

Ethernet cables use twisted pairs of copper wires and connectors, similar to telephones. They are commonly used for connecting networked computers in businesses.

Facebook

A social network used to keep people in contact with one another, and also to share photos, links, videos and information.

File

A name given to define recorded information. It allows you to record information, transforming them into a file that can be placed on any storage device, such as a hard drive.

Firewall

An application or piece of equipment, which is usually between the LAN and the WAN. It checks and filters the data stream, controlling communications passing over the network, either allowing or blocking them.

Flash drive

A device composed of a flash memory, which can store data for long periods of time without electrical power.

Folder

This is the name given to the place where files that can be stored on a hard drive, flash drives, etc. are stored. Other folders can also be saved within folders. Folders can also be called “directories”.

Game Port

This is used to connect joysticks.

Hard drive or hard disk (HD)

A hardware component used to store data permanently and in large quantities. External hard drives are more practical because they can be loaded into backpacks and briefcases.

HDMI port

This is used to connect a video monitor or multimedia projector: HDMI and VGA.

Home Network

A small LAN that normally has only one router to connect to the Internet.

Home router

This bridges the gap between the home network and the Internet, and offers connectivity, usually to computers, TVs and mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones.

Homepage

A website’s home page.

Hyperlink

This is the location in the hypertext on which the user clicks to open another page Typically, hyperlinks are underlined.

Hypertext

An electronic document that contains hyperlinks. Hypertext is organized to promote non-linear navigation, where the users create their own reading choices, unlike a book, where it’s usually necessary to read the first chapter, to then understand chapter 2, and so on.

Inkjet printer

This works with ink cartridges to print texts, spreadsheets, photos and graphics.

IP (Internet Protocol)

This is the protocol used to address computers. It consists of numerical addresses called IP addresses. An IP address consists of four numbers separated by dots, each of which may vary from 0 to 255.

Keypad

A device that has a series of buttons with letters, numbers and symbols, used to enter data, information and commands that are projected onto computer screens, tablets and smartphones.

LAN – local area network

This is a local computer network that covers a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings.

Laser printer

This works with toner and consumes more electricity than inkjet printers of the same size.

LinkedIn

A social network aimed at the professional market, where you can post your resume, information about your career and your work portfolio.

Linux

An open source operating system, allowing people to contribute to its ongoing development. It is a free software, i.e., it may be used, copied, studied, modified and redistributed without restriction.

MacOS

This is the operating system of Apple devices, like the MacBook. It is proprietary software, meaning it requires a license to be used.

Microphone

An input device that captures audio.

Monitor

Output peripheral that displays system information to the user.

Morse code

A binary system of long-distance representation of numbers, letters, and graphical signals, which uses short and long sounds, dots and dashes to communicate messages. It was developed in 1835 by the painter and inventor Samuel Finley Breese Morse.

Mouse

An external device that displays system information to the user. Its function is to move the cursor around the monitor.

Multi-function

This integrates printing, copying and scanning into one machine.

Netiquette

A set of manners that are part of general agreements for full communication in virtual environments (emails, chats and forums) and it also refers to etiquette in the virtual network.

Notebook or laptop

Portable equipment that can be used with a battery or can be plugged in. It’s easy to handle and transport.

Online or cloud storage

Data is stored online, so that it can be accessed anywhere, anytime and from different devices. For example: Google Drive, Drop Box, SkyDrive.

Optical fiber

An extremely thin fiber optic cable, comparable to the thickness of a hair. Unlike twisted pair cable, optical fiber does not conduct electricity, instead transmitting the data through light. The optical fiber reaches great distances, even overseas.

Parallel port

This is used to connect external devices, such as a printer.

Phishing

A form of electronic fraud, characterized by attempts to acquire personal data of various kinds, such as passwords and financial data. The act consists of a scammer impersonating a person or trusted company by sending official electronic communication. This occurs in several ways, mainly by email, instant message, SMS, etc.

Plotter

This is used for large-scale and high quality prints, such as banners.

POP and IMAP

Communication protocols that retrieve messages from an email server to a email client.

Printer

An external device that prints text, graphics and images. There are printers for every type of use, be it at home or in the office.

Programs and Features

This section of the Control Panel is used to uninstall or add/remove features of installed programs on the hardware.

Protocol

A set of predefined rules that describe how things should be, the order in which they happen, and what to do in case of errors.

PS/2 port

This is used to connect a mouse and a keyboard. Refer to the equipment manual to check the location of each connection.

Satellite Internet

This is used in places where conventional Internet is not available. Its area of coverage is global, since satellites are in space and have an extended reach.

Scanner

An external device that scans images, photos and text.

Serial port

It allows for remote control of equipment, such as routers, switches and mouse.

Smartphone

This translates into something like “intelligent phone”. It is a mobile phone that encompasses many of the key technologies of communication and services (access to email, Internet and GPS) used in a computer or other devices.

SMTP

A communication protocol to send messages from the email client to the email server. It is also the communication protocol between email servers.

Software Applications

Applications are software programs that serve the user, such as a text editor, a web browser, or a spreadsheet editor.

Software Utilities

Its main function is to ensure the proper functioning of the computer. Anti-virus software is an example of a utility that serves to protect a computer from virus attacks and intruders.

Spam

This term refers to unsolicited emails, which are usually sent to a large number of people.

Speaker

A box built around a speaker, which propagates the sound and improves sound reproduction, either increasing or decreasing volume.

Switch

A piece of equipment that connects computers within the same network. In order to reduce costs and popularize the technology, home routers have a switch module built in. On the other hand, corporate models use equipment dedicated to the function of the switch.

System partition

System partitions can be defined as divisions of a hard disk, i.e., technically speaking, logical or physical portions on a hard drive.

Table

A portable piece of mobile equipment operated mainly by a touch screen.

Task Manager

The Task Manager monitors the computer’s performance and manages the programs and services running on the system.

Ultrabook

An ultra-thin, lightweight laptop with great battery autonomy that does not affect its performance.

URL

Web address. For example http://www.cisco.com.

USB Port (universal serial bus)

This is designed to be universally compatible with a wide variety of devices.

User Name

This is the login name chosen by a user when creating an email account.

Video Port

This is used to connect a video monitor or multimedia projector.

Virtual community

The name given to virtual spaces that bring people together on the Internet through values or common interests. Generally, these environments have tools such as chat, forums, publication of texts and images. Their goal is to facilitate the exchange of knowledge among participants, such as debates on specific issues.

Virus

A program or part of a computer program, usually malicious, that spreads by inserting copies of itself, becoming part of other programs and files. The virus depends on the execution of the host program or file so it can become active and continue the infection process.

WAN – Wide Area Network

A wide area network that allows the transmission of data over greater geographical distances. A WAN is slower than a LAN. An example of a WAN is an Internet connection.

Webcam

An input device that captures images and transfers them to a computer. It is commonly used for video-conferencing.

Website

Also known as a site, it is a set of Web pages.

Wi-Fi

The term Wi-Fi, loosely translated, means wireless, or a connection to transmit information without the use of wires or cables. Wi-Fi is a wireless technology used to connect devices on a local network.

Windows

A popular operating system, since it is compatible with most computers in the market. It is proprietary software.

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